Health Promot Perspect. 2021;11(4): 371-381.
doi: 10.34172/hpp.2021.48
PMID: 35079581
PMCID: PMC8767080
Scopus ID: 85122579121
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Tackling the global health threat of arboviruses: An appraisal of the three holistic approaches to health

Yusuf Amuda Tajudeen 1 ORCID logo, Iyiola Olatunji Oladunjoye 1* ORCID logo, Mutiat Oluwakemi Mustapha 1, Sheriff Taye Mustapha 1, Nimat Toyosi Ajide-Bamigboye 1

1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding Author: Iyiola Olatunji Oladunjoye, Email:, Email: iyiolaoladunjoye@ gmail.com


Background: The rapid circulation of arboviruses in the human population has been linked with changes in climatic, environmental, and socio-economic conditions. These changes are known to alter the transmission cycles of arboviruses involving the anthropophilic vectors and thus facilitate an extensive geographical distribution of medically important arboviral diseases, thereby posing a significant health threat. Using our current understanding and assessment of relevant literature, this review aimed to understand the underlying factors promoting the spread of arboviruses and how the three most renowned interdisciplinary and holistic approaches to health such as One Health, Eco-Health, and Planetary Health can be a panacea for control of arboviruses.

Methods: A comprehensive structured search of relevant databases such as Medline, PubMed, WHO, Scopus, Science Direct, DOAJ, AJOL, and Google Scholar was conducted to identify recent articles on arboviruses and holistic approaches to health using the keywords including “arboviral diseases”, “arbovirus vectors”, “arboviral infections”, “epidemiology of arboviruses”, “holistic approaches”, “One Health”, “Eco-Health”, and “Planetary Health”

Results: Changes in climatic factors like temperature, humidity, and precipitation support the growth, breeding, and fecundity of arthropod vectors transmitting the arboviral diseases. Increased human migration and urbanization due to socio-economic factors play an important role in population increase leading to the rapid geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of arboviral diseases. Medical factors like misdiagnosis and misclassification also contribute to the spread of arboviruses.

Conclusion: This review highlights two important findings: First, climatic, environmental, socio-economic, and medical factors influence the constant distributions of arthropod vectors. Second, either of the three holistic approaches or a combination of any two can be adopted on arboviral disease control. Our findings underline the need for holistic approaches as the best strategy to mitigating and controlling the emerging and reemerging arboviruses.

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Submitted: 02 Aug 2021
Accepted: 03 Sep 2021
ePublished: 19 Dec 2021
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