2022: Two-year Impact Factor: 4.4
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CiteScore (2022): 5.3
SJR(2022): 0.78
Open Access

Health Promot Perspect. 2021;11(1): 36-44.
doi: 10.34172/hpp.2021.06
PMID: 33758754
PMCID: PMC7967133
Scopus ID: 85105126239
  Abstract View: 1802
  PDF Download: 1393
  Full Text View: 583

Original Article

Examining associations between smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and mental health outcomes: A cross-sectional study of college students

Namyun Kil 1* ORCID logo, Junhyoung Kim 2, Justin T. McDaniel 3, Jun Kim 3, Kari Kensinger 4

1 Department of Recreation Management and Therapeutic Recreation, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA
2 Department of Health & Wellness Design, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
3 School of Human Sciences, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
4 Therapeutic Recreation of Nebraska, Omaha, NE 68127, USA
*Corresponding Author: Email: nkil@uwlax.edu


Background: Prior studies have indicated the complex relationships of smartphone use and smartphone addiction with mental health and life satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural relationships among smartphone use, smartphone addiction, mental health problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, stress [DAS] and satisfaction with life [SWL]).

Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected by convenience sampling via an online survey of undergraduate students at a Midwestern university in the United States. The sample size of601 collected from undergraduate students that owned a smartphone and completed responses to the variables was utilized in this study. We assessed the hypothesized variables, including smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and mental health outcomes variables on a Likert-type scale. Structural analysis was used to examine the relationships.

Results: Results suggested that smartphone use had a significant negative association with DAS symptoms (β = -.31, t = -3.81, P < .001) and was positively associated with SWL (β =.25, t = 3.41, P < .001). However, smartphone use had a significant positive relationship with smartphone addiction (β = .48, t = 5.51, P < .001). Smartphone addiction was positively related to DAS (β = .44, t = 6.33, P < .001), but it was not related to SWL (β = -.08, t = -1.26, P > .05).

Conclusion: This study enhances our understanding of the associations between smartphone use and the health and well-being of undergraduate students. Implications for supporting their psychological health are discussed.

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Submitted: 01 Nov 2020
Revision: 09 Dec 2020
Accepted: 16 Dec 2020
ePublished: 07 Feb 2021
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