2022: Two-year Impact Factor: 4.4
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CiteScore (2022): 5.3
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Open Access

Health Promot Perspect. 2020;10(3): 207-219.
doi: 10.34172/hpp.2020.34
PMID: 32802757
PMCID: PMC7420169
Scopus ID: 85090625363
  Abstract View: 1369
  PDF Download: 909
  Full Text View: 458

Original Article

Social-Ecological measure of resilience: an adapted measure forPersian-speaking university students

Mohammadali Amini-Tehrani 1,2* ORCID logo, Mohammad Nasiri 1, Raheleh Sadeghi 2, Elahe-Sadat Hoseini 1, Tina Jalali 2, Hadi Zamanian 3,2 ORCID logo

1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Health Psychology and Behavior Medicine Research Group, Student Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding Author: Mohammadali Amini-Tehrani, Email:, Email: amini.m.ali@ut.ac.ir


Background: There is no validated instrument for Persian-speaking students to apply the social ecological resilience theory (SERT), which emphasizes the ecological resources for developing resilience. The study aimed at developing the student social-ecological resilience measure(Student-SERM) in Iran’s context.

Methods: Three separate samples of undergraduates participated in this mixed-methods research from the University of Tehran, Iran. Phase-1 qualitatively explored the resilience features in the university setting, to devise the university-specific subscale (USS). Phase-2piloted the construct validity and reliability of the Student-SERM in 242 undergraduates, who also completed Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Phase-3, as a cross-validation study, investigated 487 undergraduates, who completed the refined Student-SERM, HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and three indices screening academic performance, loneliness, and suicide acceptability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Pearson’s correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha were performed.

Results: Phase-1 yielded nine items for USS. In phase-2, EFA indicated the construct validity of the main 20-item measure (RMSEA=0.06 and SRMR=0.04) and the nine-item USS (RMSEA=0.07and SRMR =0.04), and the reliability and convergent/divergent validity were confirmed. In phase-3, EFA (RMSEA=0.07 and SRMR=0.04) and CFA (RMSEA=0.07, CFI=0.89, TLI=0.87,and SRMR=0.07) in two separate subsamples and CFA (RMSEA=0.06, CFI=0.92, TLI=0.90,and SRMR=0.06) in the total sample indicated the construct validity of the refined StudentSERM, including family, peer, culture, growth, and USS subscales. The reliability and convergent/divergent validity were also reconfirmed.

Conclusion: The Student-SERM incorporates ecological resources, accounting for the students’resilience. Since the resilience process involves a return to healthy functioning after adversity, further research can examine the application of Student-SERM in high-risk student populations.

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Submitted: 26 Jan 2020
Accepted: 09 May 2020
ePublished: 12 Jul 2020
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