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Submitted: 28 Sep 2019
Accepted: 26 Oct 2019
First published online: 30 Mar 2020
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© 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the originalwork is properly cited.
Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Health Promotion Perspectives, 10(2), 98-115; DOI:10.34172/hpp.2020.18

Systematic Review

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Majid Mobasseri1, Masoud Shirmohammadi2, Tarlan Amiri3, Nafiseh Vahed4,5, Hossein Hosseini Fard5, Morteza Ghojazadeh5*

1 Endocrine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2 Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
4 Emergency Medicine Research Team, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
5 Research Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Iranian EBM Centre: A Joanna Briggs Institute Affiliated Group, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Morteza Ghojazadeh, Email: ghojazadehm@hotmail.com

© 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background: Diabetes is referred to a group of diseases characterized by high glucose levels in blood. It is caused by a deficiency in the production or function of insulin or both, which can occur because of different reasons, resulting in protein and lipid metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to systematically review the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world.

Methods: A systematic search of resources was conducted to investigate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world. The databases of Medline (via PubMed and Ovid),ProQuest, Scopus, and Web of Science from January 1980 to September 2019 were searched to locate English articles. The located articles were screened in multiple levels of title, abstract,and full-text and final studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved and included in the study.

Results: From 1202 located articles, 193 studies were included in this systematic review. The results of meta-analysis showed that the incidence of type 1 diabetes was 15 per 100,000 people and the prevalence was 9.5% (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.12) in the world, which was statistically significant.

Conclusion: According to the results, the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes are increasing in the world. As a result, insulin will be difficult to access and afford, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Incidence, Prevalence, Systematic review, Type 1, World

Introduction

Diabetes is referred to a group of diseases characterized by high glucose levels in blood. It is caused by a deficiency in the production or function of insulin or both, which can occur because of different reasons, resulting in protein and lipid metabolic disorders.1 The long-term effects of hypoglycemia are tissue and organ damage.2

Symptoms of diabetes include polyuria, thirst, vision disorders, and weight loss. In some cases there are more severe forms of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar that may lead to stupor and coma. But most symptoms are not severe, which may cause damage or even failure of different organs in the long run and lead to irreparable injuries such as blindness, amputation, stroke and eventually death. Previously, type 1 diabetes was called insulin-dependent diabetes and it could happen at any age but is most common in children and young people.3

People with type 1 diabetes are not able to produce enough insulin. This type constitutes about 5%–10% of all cases of diabetes. In this type, the cellular destruction of beta cells occurs in the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not release any insulin. Since there is no epidemiologically accurate information on the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world and in the region, therefore, the present study was designed and implemented as a systematic review and meta-analysis, because of geopolitical map of the policy on the prevention and treatment of this disease can be done better.

Materials and Methods

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a systematic search of resources was conducted by a librarian (N.V.) to investigate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes (condition) in the people (population) of the world (context). The PICO of study based on the JBI protocol as CoCoPop for prevalence and incidence studies.

Data sources and search strategy

The databases of Medline via (PubMed, Ovid), Embase, Scopus, Web of Science from January 1980 to September 2019 were searched to locate English articles. Also, SID, Magiran, and Barakat databases were searched for Persian studies. The grey literature and ongoing studies were searched using the following: OpenGrey, Google Scholar and for thesis and dissertations ProQuest and studies presented at conferences were also searched. Also, experts and professionals on this subject were reached and their opinions were gathered for information on published and unpublished studies. The search was performed using MESH and free keywords. The keywords selected for the search were: “type 1 diabetes”, “prevalence”, and “incidence” with this search strategy: (((“Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1”[Mesh]) OR ((((((((((((((((((((IDDM[Title/Abstract]) OR T1DM[Title/Abstract]) OR “Type 1 Diabetes”[Title/Abstract]) OR “Autoimmune Diabetes”[Title/Abstract]) OR “Juvenile Onset Diabetes”[Title/Abstract]) OR “Juvenile-Onset Diabetes”[Title/Abstract]) OR “Brittle Diabetes Mellitus”[Title/Abstract]) OR “brittle diabetes”[Title/Abstract]) OR “diabetes mellitus type 1”[Title/Abstract]) OR “diabetes mellitus type I”[Title/Abstract]) OR “diabetes type 1”[Title/Abstract]) OR “diabetes type I”[Title/Abstract]) OR “early onset diabetes mellitus”[Title/Abstract]) OR “insulin dependent diabetes”[Title/Abstract]) OR “juvenile diabetes”[Title/Abstract]) OR “juvenile diabetes mellitus”[Title/Abstract]) OR “type I diabetes”[Title/Abstract]) OR “type I diabetes mellitus”[Title/Abstract]) OR “Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus”[Title/Abstract]) OR “Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus”[Title/Abstract]))) AND ((((“Prevalence”[Mesh]) OR ((Prevalence[Title/Abstract]) OR Prevalences[Title/Abstract]))) OR ((“Incidence”[Mesh]) OR ((Incidence[Title/Abstract]) OR Incidences[Title/Abstract]))). The complete search strategy of Medline and Embase is in Supplementary file 1.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusioncriteria for selecting studies include: 1. Articles published between 1980 and 2019; 2. Articles published in English and Persian. The exclusion criteria were: 1. Studies with no reported sample size; 2. Studies that had low quality; 3. Studies that were published before 1990.

Study selection

The located articles were screened in multiple levels of title, abstract, and full-text and final studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved and included in the study. The studies were critically appraised by 2 subject specialists and low-quality studies were excluded. In cases of disagreements between two experts (M.M. and M.S.) at each stage of selection and appraisal, third person opinion was used.

Quality appraisal

Articles were evaluated using the STROBE checklist. In this checklist, the minimum score was 2 and the maximum was 4. Finally, articles that received a score of 4 on checklist questions were included in the research, 128 articles earned 4 score, 46 articles earned 3 score and 19 articles earned 2 score and finally their data were extracted to perform the meta-analysis.

Data extraction and quality assessment

The information extracted from the articles were entered in the extraction form. Extracted data included: first author, year of publication, country of study, sample size, and incidence of diabetes in the studies.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was performed using CMA v.2.0 software and P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. The binomial distribution was used to calculate the variance. Weighted mean was used to combine the prevalence rate of different studies. Meta-analysis was used to obtain the incidence of type 1 diabetes. The heterogeneity between studies was assessed by Cochran (Q) and I2 statistics, which expressed the percentage of variation between studies. Random effects model was used to calculate the overall and pooled effect size.

Results

Search results and study characteristics

In a systematic search of sources, 65 765 articles were identified. A total of 58 239 articles were duplicates, and 7107 were excluded after reviewing the title and abstract of the articles. After reviewing the full-text articles, 49 articles were excluded. Finally, 193 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Figure 1 shows the identified and retrieved articles in the study. Tables 1-3 show the specifications of the articles that were studied.

Flow chart of systematic review.

Table 1. Characteristics of studies incidence of type 1 diabetes
Study Year Country Continent Sample size Incidence per 10000
Abduljabbar et al4 2010 Saudi Arabia Asia 1028 0.02752
Abdul-Rasoul et al5 2002 Kuwait Asia 760 0.02018
Abellana et al6 2009 Spain Europe 448 0.0118
Ajlouni et al7 1999 Jordan Asia 123 0.0032
107 0.0028
138 0.0036
Alaghehbandan et al8 2006 Canada USA 716 0.019
Alemu et al9 2009 Ethiopia Africa 81 0.0021
Algert CS et al10 2009 Australia Asia 605 0.016
Altobelli et al11 1998 Italy Europe 355 0.00934
Arpi et al12 2002 Catania Europe 470 0.01238
Aschner et al13 2014 America USA 279 0.00731
Bahíllo et al14 2007 Spain Europe 835 0.02222
Barat et al15 2008 French Europe 510 0.01347
Battelino and Kržišnik16 1998 Slovenia Europe 305 0.008
Berhan et al17 2011 Sweden Europe 1612 0.0439
Bessaoud et al18 1990 Algeria Africa 168 0.0044
Bizzarri et al19 2010 Italy Europe 593 0.01568
Blanchard et al20 1997 Canada USA 768 0.0204
Blumenfeld et al21 2014 Asia Asia 433 0.0114
Bratina et al22 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 325 0.00854
Bruno et al23 1990 Italy Europe 259 0.00678
Bruno et al24 1993 Italy Europe 256 0.0067
Bruno et al25 1997 Italy Europe 282 0.00739
Bruno et al26 2001 Italy Europe 297 0.00778
Bruno et al27 2009 Italy Europe 354 0.0093
Bruno et al28 2010 Italy Europe 465 0.01226
Bruno et al29 2013 Italy Europe 1644 0.0448
Calle-Pascual et al30 1993 Spain Europe 565 0.01493
Calori et al31 1990 Italy Europe 253 0.00663
Campbell-Stokes and Taylor32 2005 New Zealand Europe 675 0.0179
Cardwell et al33 2006 Ireland Europe 925 0.0247
Carrasco et al34 1996 Chile USA 90 0.00236
Carrasco et al35 2006 Chile USA 251 0.00658
Carrasco et al36 2006 Chile USA 154 0.00402
Casu et al37 2004 Sardinia Europe 1433 0.0388
Cherubini et al38 1994 Italy Europe 309 0.0081
Chong et al39 2007 Australia Asia 731 0.0194
Cinek et al40 2000 Czech Republic Europe 384 0.0101
Cinek et al41 2003 Czech Republic Europe 444 0.0117
Compés et al42 2013 Spain Europe 723 0.0192
Cotellessa et al43 2003 Italy Europe 476 0.01256
Crow et al44 1991 England Europe 560 0.0148
508 0.0134
Dabelea et al45 2009 Navajo nation USA 86 0.00224
841 0.0224
1452 0.03934
Dacou-Voutetakis et al46 1995 Greece Europe 239 0.00625
Demirbilek et al47 2013 Turkey Asia 275 0.0072
Derraik et al48 2012 New Zealand Europe 845 0.0225
Dziatkowiak et al49 2002 Poland Europe 316 0.0083
244 0.0064
301 0.0079
Ehehalt et al50 2012 Europe Europe 579 0.0153
Ehehalt et al51 2009 Italy Europe 560 0.0148
Ehehalt et al52 2012 Europe Europe 579 0.0153
El-Ziny et al53 2014 Egypt Africa 119 0.0031
Feltbower et al54 2002 UK Europe 493 0.013
Ferreira et al55 1993 Brazil USA 290 0.0076
Forga et al56 2013 Spain Europe 331 0.0087
Formosa et al57 2012 Malta Africa 821 0.02186
Frazer De Llado et al58 1998 Puerto Rico USA 679 0.018
Frongia et al59 1997 Italy Europe 1411 0.0382
Gardner et al60 1997 USA USA 701 0.0186
Charkaluk et al61 2002 France Europe 364 0.00958
Giralt et al62 2001 Spain Europe 973 0.026
Goday et al63 1992 Spain Europe 407 0.0107
Gong et al64 2013 China Asia 56 0.00145
Gopinath et al65 2008 Sweden Europe 914 0.02438
Gorham et al66 1993 USA USA 801 0.0213
Grabauskas et al67 1991 Lithuania Europe 256 0.0067
Green and Patterson68 2001 Hungary Europe 686 0.0182
Harjutsalo et al69 2008 Finland Europe 1577 0.0429
Harjutsalo et al70 2013 Finland Europe 2264 0.0629
Huen et al71 2000 Hong Kong Asia 54 0.0014
Jarosz-Chobot et al72 2010 Poland Europe 375 0.00987
Jarosz-Chobot et al73 2011 Poland Europe 388 0.0102
Ji et al74 2010 Sweden Europe 27 0.00071
Kadiki and Moawad75 1994 Libya Africa 335 0.0088
Kadiki et al76 1996 Libya Africa 343 0.009
Karvonen et al77 1996 Finland Europe 1319 0.0356
Karvonen et al78 2000 China & Venezuela Asia 4 0.0001
Karvonen et al79 1997 Finland Europe 1507 0.0409
Kida et al80 1999 Japan Asia 58 0.0015
Koton81 2007 Asia Asia 305 0.008
Kulaylat and Narchi82 2000 Saudi Arabia Asia 437 0.0115
Lammi et al83 2007 Finland Europe 601 0.0159
Larenas et al84 1996 Chile USA 49 0.00127
Lawrence et al85 2014 USA USA 914 0.0244
Legault and Polychronakos86 2006 Canada USA 568 0.015
Libman et al87 1998 USA USA 631 0.0167
Lin et al88 2014 Taiwan Asia 128 0.00334
Lipman89 1993 USA USA 494 0.01302
Lipman et al90 2002 USA USA 504 0.0133
Lipman et al91 2006 USA USA 560 0.0148
Lipman et al92 2013 USA USA 642 0.017
Lipton et al93 2002 USA USA 575 0.0152
Lisbôa et al94 1998 Brazil USA 455 0.012
Li et al95 2000 China Asia 22 0.00056
Lora-Gómez et al96 2005 Spain Europe 635 0.0168
Mamoulakis et al97 2003 Crete Europe 233 0.0061
Martinucci et al98 2002 Belarus Europe 176 0.0046
Mauny et al99 2005 France Europe 230 0.00603
Mayer-Davis et al100 2009 USA USA 594 0.0157
Mazzella et al101 1994 Italy Europe 445 0.01172
Metcalfe and Baum102 1991 Britain Europe 512 0.0135
Michalková et al103 2004 Slovakia Europe 529 0.01396
Morales-Pérez et al104 2000 Spain Europe 485 0.0128
Muiña et al105 2012 Spain Europe 1031 0.0276
Muntoni et al106 1992 Sardinia Europe 911 0.0243
Muntoni et al107 1997 Italy Europe 1255 0.0338
Neu et al108 1997 German Europe 440 0.0116
Neu et al109 2001 Europe Europe 474 0.0125
Newhook et al110 2004 Canada USA 1331 0.03593
Newhook et al111 2008 Canada USA 1300 0.03508
Newhook et al112 2012 Canada USA 1394 0.0377
Ostrauskas et al113 2011 Lithuania Europe 316 0.0083
Patterson et al114 2000 Macedonia Europe 123 0.0032
Patterson et al115 2001 Finland Europe 1482 0.0402
Peter116 2007 Bahamas USA 384 0.0101
Pinelli et al117 1998 Italy Europe 407 0.0107
Pishdad118 2005 Iran Asia 120 0.00314
Podar et al119 1992 Estonia Europe 448 0.0118
Polanska et al120 2014 Poland Europe 452 0.01192
Prisco et al121 1996 Italy Europe 232 0.00607
Pronina et al122 2008 Moscow Europe 489 0.0129
Pundziute-Lyckå et al123 2003 Lithuania Europe 361 0.0095
263 0.0069
Radosevic et al124 2013 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 286 0.0075
Slovenia 474 0.0125
Ramachandran et al125 1996 India Asia 399 0.0105
Rami et al126 2001 Austria Asia 342 0.00899
Rangasami et al127 1997 Scotland Europe 896 0.0239
Serrano Río et al128 1990 Spain Europe 429 0.0113
Roche et al129 2002 Ireland Europe 627 0.0166
Rosenbauer et al130 1999 Europe Europe 309 0.0081
Aude Rueda et al131 1998 Mexico USA 44 0.00115
Rytkönen et al132 2003 Finland Europe 1383 0.0374
Samardzic et al133 2010 Montenegro Europe 508 0.0134
Samuelsson et al134 1994 Sweden Europe 944 0.0252
Santos et al135 2001 Chile USA 157 0.00411
Sasaki and Okamoto136 1992 Japan Asia 64 0.00168
77 0.002
Schober et al137 1995 Australia Asia 301 0.0079
Schober et al138 2009 Austria Asia 694 0.0184
Schoenle et al139 2001 Switzerland Europe 399 0.0105
Scott et al140 1992 New Zealand Europe 482 0.0127
Sebastiani et al141 1996 Italy Europe 301 0.0079
Sella et al142 2010 Asia Asia 481 0.01269
Sereday et al143 1994 Argentina USA 2694 0.0759
Shaltout et al144 2002 Kuwait Asia 757 0.0201
Shamis et al145 1997 Asia Asia 278 0.0073
López Siguero et al146 1997 Malaga Europe 541 0.0143
Sipetic et al147 2013 Serbia Europe 395 0.0104
Skordis and Hadjiloizou148 1997 Greece Europe 399 0.0105
Skordis et al149 2002 Greece Europe 430 0.01132
Skordis et al150 2012 Cyprus Asia 473 0.01246
Skrivarhaug et al151 2014 Norway Europe 1215 0.0327
Smith et al152 2007 USA USA 683 0.0181
Staines et al153 1993 UK Europe 519 0.0137
Staines et al154 1997 Pakistan Asia 39 0.00102
Stipancic et al155 2008 Croatia Europe 338 0.00887
Svensson et al156 2002 Denmark Europe 731 0.0194
Svensson et al157 2008 Denmark Europe 827 0.022
Swai et al158 1993 Tanzania Africa 58 0.0015
Tahirovic et al159 2007 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 271 0.0071
Taplin et al160 2005 New South Wales Asia 786 0.0209
Teeäär et al161 2009 Estonia Europe 649 0.0172
Thunander et al162 2008 Sweden Europe 1397 0.0378
Torffvit et al163 2007 Sweden Europe 482 0.0127
Toth et al164 1997 Canada USA 962 0.0257
Toumba et al165 2007 Cyprus Asia 452 0.0119
Tran et al166 2014 Australia Asia 827 0.022
Tuchinda et al167 2002 Thailand Asia 63 0.00165
Tull et al168 1991 Virgin Islands USA 286 0.0075
Tuomilehto et al169 1991 Finland Europe 1219 0.0328
Tuomilehto-Wolf et al170 1991 Estonia Europe 407 0.0107
Tuomilehto et al171 1992 Finland Europe 1305 0.0352
Tuomilehto et al172 1992 Finland Europe 1031 0.0276
Tuomilehto et al173 1993 Mauritius Africa 81 0.0021
Tuomilehto et al174 199 Finland Europe 1369 0.037
Tzaneva et al175 1998 Bulgaria Europe 241 0.00632
Vandewalle et al176 1997 Belgium Europe 448 0.0118
Vehik177 2007 Colorado USA 560 0.0148
Verge et al178 1994 Australia Asia 549 0.0145
Vichi et al179 2014 Italy Europe 508 0.0134
Vlajinac et al180 1995 Serbia Europe 294 0.0077
Vos et al181 1996 Netherland Europe 753 0.02
Wadsworth et al182 1995 England Europe 354 0.0093
Washington et al183 2012 USAVirgin Islands USA 579 0.0153
Willis et al184 2002 New Zealand Europe 757 0.02012
Wong185 1994 China Asia 65 0.0017
Wong et al186 1993 Hong Kong Asia 77 0.002
Yang et al187 1998 China Asia 18 0.00048
Yang et al188 2005 China Asia 18 0.00047
Zalutskaya et al189 2004 Gomel area Europe 300 0.00786
Minsk area 127 0.00332
Zhao et al190 1999 England Europe 564 0.0149
Zhao et al191 2014 China China 119 0.0031
Zubkiewicz-Kucharska and Noczyńska192 2010 Poland Europe 471 0.01241
Table 2. Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world
Prevalence Per 10000 Incidence Per 100000
World 5.9 15
Asia 9.6 15
Africa 5.3 8
Europe 2.12
America 3.9 20
Table 3. Characteristics of studies prevalence of type 1 diabetes
Study Country Sample Size Prevalence Per 100000
Akazawa193 Japan 40 10
Akesen et al194 Turkey 26 67
Al-Herbish et al195 Saudi Arabia 42 109.5
Aschner et al13 America 2827 8000
Bessaoud et al18 Algeria 10 27
Dabelea et al45 Navajo nation 40 11
31 81
106 278
Dabelea et al196 USA 57 148
Ehehalt et al51 Italy 3761 11000
Elamin et al197 Sudan 17 42.98
El-Ziny et al53 Egypt 10 26.8
Eriksson et al198 Finland 1009 2700
Evans et al199 Scotland 6592 22000
Frongia et al59 Italy 176 459
Garancini et al200 Italy 31 80
Gujral et al201 UK 29 75
Jorge et al202 Portugal 49 128
Kemper et al203 USA 70 183
Mayer-Davis et al100 USA 218 570
Moussa et al204 Kuwait 103 269.9
Ostrauskas205 Lithuania 31 80.64
Ostrauskas and Žalinkevičius206 Lithuania 27 70.23
Peter et al116 Bahamas 12 31
Pettitt et al207 USA 74 193
Ramachandran et al208 India 10 26
Rangasami et al127 Scotland 58 150
Scott et al140 New Zealand 44 115
López Siguero et al146 Malaga 297 780
Soliman et al209 Oman 50 13.25
Songini et al210 Sardinia 46 119
Wong185 China 30 8.3
Wu et al211 New Zealand 87 227

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in Asia

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes were extracted from meta-analysis studies. In type 1 diabetes incidence, the heterogeneity between studies in the meta-analysis was significant (Q = 50.51; df = 16; P < 0.001; I2 = 68.33), but in the prevalence of diabetes 1, the heterogeneity was not significant (Q = 5220; df  = 6; P < 0.001; I2 = 99.88). The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Asia was 15 per 100 000 population, which was statistically significant (Incidence = 0.015, 95% CI = 0.010 to 0.021, P < 0.001), and the prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 6.9 per 10 000 people, which was statistically significant (Prevalence = 0.069, 95% CI = 0.020 to 0.214, P < 0.001). Figures 2A and 2B show the forest plot of prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in Asia.

(A) Incidence and (B) prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Asia.

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in Africa

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes were extracted from meta-analysis studies. In type 1 diabetes incidence, the heterogeneity between studies in the meta-analysis was not significant (Q = 23.79; df  = 6; P < 0.001; I2 = 74.78) and in the prevalence of diabetes 1, the heterogeneity was not significant too, (Q = 4.4; df  = 1; P < 0.001; I2 = 77.27). The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Africa was 8 per 100 000 population, which was statistically significant (Incidence = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.003 to 0.021 P < 0.001), and the prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 3.5 per 10 000 people, which was not statistically significant (prevalence = 0.035, 95% CI: 0.022 to 0.055, P < 0.001). Figures 3A and 3B show the forest plot of prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in Africa.

(A) Incidence and (B) prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Africa.

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes were extracted from meta-analysis studies. In type 1 diabetes incidence, the heterogeneity between studies in the meta-analysis was significant (Q = 895.56, df  = 96, P < 0.001, I2 = 89.28) but in the prevalence of diabetes 1, the heterogeneity was not significant, (Q = 5792.85, df  = 15, P < 0.001, I2 = 99.74). The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe was 15 per 100 000 population, which was statistically significant (Incidence = 0.015, 95% CI = 0.013 to 0.018, P < 0.001), and the prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 12.2 per 10 000 people, which was statistically significant (Prevalence = 0.122, 95% CI = 0.085 to 0.171, P < 0.001). Figures 4 and 5 show the forest plot of prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe.

Incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe.

Prevalenceof type 1 diabetes in Europe.

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in America

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes were extracted from meta-analysis studies. In type 1 diabetes incidence, the heterogeneity between studies in the meta-analysis was significant (Q = 18.88, df  = 16, P = 0.27, I2 = 15.28) and in the prevalence of diabetes 1, the heterogeneity was significant too, (Q = 1120.79, df = 7, P < 0.001, I2 = 99.38). The incidence of type 1 diabetes in America was 20 per 100 000 population, which was statistically significant (Incidence = 0.020, 95% CI = 0.010 to 0.021, P < 0.001), and the prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 12.2 per 10 000 people, which was statistically significant (Prevalence = 0.093, 95% CI = 0.063 to 0.137, P < 0.001). Figures 6A and 6B show the forest plot of prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in America. A sensitivity analysis was done for Incidence of type 1 diabetes in America based on excluding studies with too wide CIs. Sensitivity analysis’s results show that the incidence of type 1 diabetes in America is 19 per 100 000 population, which is statistically significant (Incidence = 0.019, 95% CI = 0.016 to 0.022, P < 0.001).

(A) Incidence and (B) prevalence of type 1 diabetes in America.

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world

Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes were extracted from meta-analysis studies. In type 1 diabetes incidence, the heterogeneity between studies in the meta-analysis was significant (Q = 1020.30, df = 137, P < 0.001, I2 = 86.57) and in the prevalence of diabetes 1, the heterogeneity was significant too, (Q = 14760.32, df = 32, P < 0.001, I2 = 99.78). The incidence of type 1 diabetes in world was 15 per 100 000 population, which was statistically significant (Incidence = 0.015, 95% CI = 0.013 to 0.017, P < 0.001), and the prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 9.5 per 10 000 people, which was statistically significant (prevalence = 0.095, 95% CI = 0.070 to 0.128, P < 0.001). Figure 7 shows the forest plot of prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world.

Prevalence of type 1 diabetes in the world.

Publication bias

In order to assess the publication bias, Eggers Regression test was used. Based on the results, the population bias between studies was not significant (t-value = 1.26, df 93, P = 0.21).

Meta-Regression

Meta-regression was used to determine the effect of time on type 1 diabetes incidence. The results showed that the incidence of type 1 diabetes has increased over time. The meta-regression plot is shown in Figure 8.

The meta-regression plot.

Discussion

The global trend of increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes, with multiple etiologies, operates through multiple mechanisms. In the present study, data were extracted from 193 articles between 1990 and 2019. The results showed that the incidence of type 1 diabetes in continental subgroups (Asia, Africa, Europe, and America) was 15 per 100 000, 8 per 100 000, 15 per 100 000 and 20 per 100, respectively. Also, the global prevalence of continental subtypes of type 1 diabetes in the above regions was, 6.9 per 10 000, 3.5 per 10 000, and 12.2 per 10 000, respectively.

Relative differences between obtained results and previous statistics may be due to different research time periods and new global population status. Especially in recent years (social, political and economic migration), the changing global climate coupled with new policies and sanctions that have led to poorer middle-income and low-income countries.212

The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is known, which is associated with different genes and the involvement of multiple factors. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented and treated by removing or reducing these factors. Most of the warnings of national and international health bodies and diabetes associations are based on lifestyle changes and stress reduction that can prevent diabetes.213

But in type 1 diabetes, that make up 5 to 15 percent of diabetics and often involve children, Prevention ways have not yet been defined. However, screening of type 1 diabetes in prone families in relation to autoantibodies has recently been proposed. Also, clinical studies on the prevention of type 1 diabetes have been conducted.214

If one foot was amputated every 30 seconds, today it’s every 15 seconds. Need for dialysis equipment will increase. The CCU and ICU beds will be full of stroke and myocardial infarction patients. The population of the blind increases and unfortunately, new, effective, and less complicated treatments become more expensive.215

The disease shows a significant increase in glucose and possibly DKA. These patients definitely need insulin due to the pathogenesis of insulin deficiency. Manufacturing and production of insulin (traditional insulins and analog insulins) and insulin pumps, despite being inexpensive in producing countries, is shipped to low- and middle-income countries for high prices which is a major problem for the managing of type 1 diabetes patients. Certainly, uncontrolled hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetic patients will make all the problems more severe.216

Limitations

One of the limitations of the study was the poor quality of some articles and, despite a careful search, the lack of access to some of the full text of the published articles.

Conclusion

According to the results, the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes are increasing in the world. As a result, insulin will be difficult to access and afford, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. Thus, warnings about this can help international organizations and countries to plan for preventive measures.

Ethical approval

This research was approved by the Local Ethics Committee with No. 61701.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding

This article was supported by the Research Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, and the Research Vice-Chancellor of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

Authors’ contributions

Concept: MM. Study design: MSH and TA. Systematic search: NV. Critical reviews: MM and TA. Data extraction: MSH and MGH. Data analysis: MGH and HHF. Writing: NV, TA and MM. All authors had primary responsibility for the final content of the manuscript and read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgments

Special thanks to the Research Vice-Chancellor of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for financial support for this study.

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary file 1 contains search strategy.

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